Safe and secure electronic communication links are a key requirement for a modern society. We are investigating new methods to exploit physical properties of optical and wireless communication media to ensure safety and security. In the optical domain quantum effects are used to guarantee security, hence nobody can listen to the communication without being detected. In the wireless domain, we devise novel communication methods for 5G systems for ultra-reliable and low-latency communication links, so that e.g. cables can be replaced by a wireless system in production environments or autonomous vehicles can be reliably connected.