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We measure R&D internationalisation with four indicators:

  • Inward BERD: Total business research and development expenditure (BERD) by foreign-owned affiliates in the reporting country
  • Outward BERD: Total business research and development expenditure (BERD) of domestically owned firms outside of the reporting country
  • Overall inward/outward R&D intensity: total inward/outward BERD divided by total BERD
  • Share top investor country: Share of the top investor country in total inward BERD